Pishan County, established in the 28th year of Guangxu, was named after the ancient country. The Uighurs call Pishan County "Guma", and its meaning is still uncertain, including "hut", "cage" and "suspicious place". According to the Tongwen Annals of the Western Regions, "It is dubious. At the beginning of the year, people in the area fled after being Muslim, so they were named after them." By the end of 2019, the registered residence of Pishan County was 322187.
Pishan County is located in the south of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the southern edge of the Taklimakan Desert, and the northern foot of the Karakoram Mountains. It is adjacent to Hotan County and Moyu County in the east, Yecheng County in the west, the actual control area of India and Pakistan in Kashmir in the south, and Maigaiti County and Bachu County in the north. It is located at 77 ° 31 '- 79 ° 38' E and 35 ° 22 '- 39 ° 01' N. The county is 423 kilometers long from north to south and 67.5-144.5 kilometers wide from east to west. The total area of the county is 39741.52 square kilometers, of which 37.9% is mountainous, 22.6% is plain and 39.5% is desert. Suitable farmland accounts for 2.3%, and suitable pasture accounts for 13.1%. The county people's government is located beside the 315 National Highway, 1811.6 kilometers away from Urumqi, the capital of the autonomous region.
In 2019, the regional GDP of Pishan County was 3747.86 million yuan, the added value of the primary industry was 967.55 million yuan, the added value of the secondary industry was 476.51 million yuan, the general public budget revenue was 226.19 million yuan, and the general public budget expenditure was 5495.37 million yuan.
On September 25, 2018, it was awarded the honorary title of "2018 Comprehensive Demonstration County of E-commerce in Rural Areas" by the Ministry of Commerce.
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